The Bering Sea is separated from the Gulf of Alaska by the Alaska Peninsula. News IB 20-85: Apportionment of the Groundfish Reserve in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area. UNESCO noted that 203 bird species have been sighted on the Commander Islands, including 58 nesting there. The transition to the subpolar oceanic climate of southwest Alaska to the east is very apparent, especially in the extremely low sunshine hours, which average only around 2.8 per day due to the consistent fog from the Aleutian Low and the Oyashio Current on its western flank. The population grew from 110 people in 1827 (17 Russians, 45 Aleuts and 48 mixed race) to more than 300 people in 1879 (100 Aleuts on Copper island alone, along with 332 mixed-race and about 10% Russian or other nationalities). By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Puffins are abundant, although the semi-flightless spectacled cormorant became extinct circa 1850. Upon returning to the Russian mainland, Steller then explored the Kamchatka peninsula and ultimately published De Bestiis Marinis (‘On the Beasts of the Sea’). In 1741 Commander Vitus Bering, sailing in Svyatoy Pyotr (St. Peter) for the Russian Navy, was shipwrecked and died of scurvy[5][6] on Bering Island, along with 28 of his men. [3] After Russia sold Alaska and the Aleutian islands to the United States in 1867, Bering Island was placed under the Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky jurisdiction. Bering Island (Russian: о́стров Бе́ринга, ostrov Beringa) is located off the Kamchatka Peninsula in the Bering Sea. The survivors under the command of the Swedish born lieutenant Sven Waxell[7][circular reference] were stranded on the island for 10 months, and managed to survive by killing seals and birds. Other Ranges: To go to pages for other ranges either click on the map above, or on range names in the hierarchy snapshot below, which show the parent, siblings, and children of the Bering Sea Islands. Pop. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). …the state’s Seward Peninsula, Little Diomede Island, part of Alaska, lies in the Bering Strait only 2.5 miles (4 km) from Russian-owned Big Diomede Island. Subareas: The area is divided into two subareas, the Bering Sea and the Aleutian Islands. [3] In 1990, after 170 years of separation and loss of cultural traditions, a planeload of Aleuts from Nikolskoye met another planeload of Alaskan Aleuts in Kamchatka's capital, and were surprised they could still communicate in the old Aleut language. It comprises a deep water basin, which then rises through a narrow slope into the shallower water above the continental shelves. View of St Paul Island an island that lives off the fish caught in the Bering Sea. Bering Sea, c.878,000 sq mi (2,274,020 sq km), northward extension of the Pacific Ocean between Siberia and Alaska. [3] Because of their isolation, like the now-Alaskan Pribilof Islands, the Aleuts have been used for studies of genetic drift. We have a new name! The Southeast Bering Sea Shelf was an early focus, which included the long-term mooring site M2. The Bering Strait connects it with the Arctic Ocean. Work has extended northward as priorities shift, and as the ecosystem responds to long-term warming and decreasing seasonal sea ice. U.S. [4] It is a round island with a diameter of 800 m (2,620 ft). The Bering Sea supports many species of fish. It had no year-round human residents until roughly 1826. Sledge Island is like neighboring islands in the Bering Sea such as King Island, Fairway Rock, and Little Diomede near Wales, which are granitic plutons extremely resistant to erosion. Like the rest of Kamchatka Krai, Bering Island has a subarctic climate (Dfc), though the ocean makes temperatures much less extreme than interior Siberia, with winters being about four degrees milder than in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. What is the world’s largest archipelago? However, his sympathies for the native peoples led to accusations that he was fomenting rebellion, so he was imprisoned and recalled to St. Petersburg, dying en route at age 37, although his diaries were later published to great acclaim and historic significance. Bering Island Native name: Behring Island Bering Island from space, March 1992 Geography LocationBering Sea Coordinates55°0′3″N 166°16′23″E / 55.00083°N 166.27306°E / 55.00083; 166.27306Coordinates: 55°0′3″N 166°16′23″E / 55.00083°N 166.27306°E / 55.00083; 166.27306 Administration Russia OblastKamchatskaya CityNikolskoye Group of Aleut hunters from Bering Island. Q&A: On a Bering Sea island, disappearing ice threatens a way of life. At 90 kilometers (56 mi) long by 24 kilometers (15 mi) wide, it is the largest and westernmost of the Commander Islands, with an area of 1,660 square kilometers (640 sq mi). Note: Range borders shown on map are an approximation and are not authoritative. Whale species sighted in the surrounding waters include sperm whales, orcas, several species of beaked whales, humpback, and right whales. Two Bering Sea species, the Steller's Sea Cow and Spectacled Cormorant, are extinct because of overexploitation by man. The island's small population is involved mostly in fishing. The Bering Sea is a marginal sea of the Pacific Ocean. It is an outstretched peninsula bounded by water on three sides: to the west by the Okhotsk Sea, to the … Click Here for a Full Screen Map. November 21, 2020 - 6:00 p.m. Notice of a Fishery Management Action fished commercially by vessels using trawl, longline, pot, and jig gear. Bering Island is treeless, desolate and experiences severe weather, including high winds, persistent fog and earthquakes. Bering Sea has had: (M1.5 or greater) 0 earthquakes in the past 24 hours 5 earthquakes in the past 365 days As of late 2018, the Aleutian and Bering Sea Islands Landscape Conservation Cooperative is now called the Aleutian and Bering Sea Initiative. Updates? [9], The area surrounding Bering Island is now a biosphere reserve, known for its diverse wildlife, and particularly marine mammals. This Fishery Management Plan (FMP) governs groundfish fisheries of the United States (U.S.) exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of the Bering Sea and that portion of the North Pacific Ocean adjacent to the Aleutian Islands which is between 170Ε W. longitude and the U.S.-Russian Convention Line of 1867. Please bear with us … Two and a half miles (4 km) off Bering Island's northwest shore lies small Toporkov Island (Ostrov Toporkov) 55°12′9″N 165°55′59″E / 55.20250°N 165.93306°E / 55.20250; 165.93306 (Toporkov Island). [10] Steller sea lions continue to summer on Bering Island, but the manatee-like Steller's sea cows, which fed on the kelp beds surrounding the island, were hunted to extinction by 1768. It covers over two million square kilometers, bordered on the east and northeast by Alaska, on the west by Russia's Siberia and Kamchatka Peninsula, on the south … [2] Most of Bering Island and several of the smaller islands in their entirety are now part of the Komandorsky Zapovednik nature preserve. Tin City, Bering Sea tide chart key: The tide chart above shows the height and times of high tide and low tide for Tin City, Bering Sea, Alaska. Our Bering Sea research areas stretch from Alaska’s west coast to the dateline (180°). The Bering Strait, located just to the south of the Arctic Circle at the northern edges of the Bering Sea, is a somewhat narrow sea passage between the easternmost point of the Asian continent and the westernmost point of the North American continent. Photo about The coast of Bering Island The Bering Sea, Commander Islands. The Bering Sea is experiencing many changes. Bering Strait. Little Diomede Island (Diomede city), 146. Corrections? The islands’ first European visitor was the Danish navigator Vitus Jonassen Bering on Aug. 16 (St. Diomede’s Day), 1728. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Crab Rationalization is a program to share the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands crab resources between harvesters, processors, and Alaska’s coastal communities in an effort to better balance fishing capacity to the crab resources and to improve safety in one of the world’s most dangerous jobs. … Media in category "Islands of the Bering Sea" The following 14 files are in this category, out of 14 total. Bering sea, Kamchatka, Russia Kamchatka Peninsula, Eastern coast, Bering sea, Russia Kamchatka Krai occupies the north-eastern part of the Russian Federation. Both Russia and the United States have shown a tacit tolerance of unintentional airspace violations, which are common in bad weather.…. The orange flashing dot shows the tide time right now. Bering Island is located off the Kamchatka Peninsula in the Bering Sea. To the east lies Little Diomede Island, a part of Alaska, inhabited by Chukchi people who are skilled seamen. Steller explored Bering Island and cataloged its fauna, including Steller's sea cow, which became extinct within three decades due to being hunted for its meat. Humans introduced reindeer, American mink and rats to the islands, with negative effects on native wildlife.[11]. It is screened from the Pacific proper by the Aleutian Islands. two islands, diamede & big diamede, in bering sea, russia - bering sea fotografías e imágenes de stock. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/place/Diomede-Islands, Public Broadcasting Service - Diomede Islands, Bering Sea, Fact Monster - World - Diomede Islands, Bering Sea. Sort out the facts about islands across the globe. Same goals, partners, and plans as before, just with a catchy new moniker. Although Bering himself died on Dec 8, 1741 and nearly one half of his crew perished, in the end it was the abundant sea life of Bering Island that saved them. Bering Sea Dispute, dispute between the United States, on the one hand, and Great Britain and Canada, on the other, over the international status of the Bering Sea.In an attempt to control seal hunting off the Alaskan coast, the United States in 1881 claimed authority over all the Bering Sea waters. 4.8 earthquake - Bering Sea, 28 mi east of Nikolski, Alaska, USA, on Monday, 30 Nov 8.00 am (GMT -9) - This quake was likely an aftershock of the 5.5 quake Bering Sea, 25 mi southeast of Nikolski, Alaska, USA, 29 Nov 5.59 pm (GMT -11) , which had occurred 12 hours earlier. Porpoises also frequent these waters. It has a deep water basin, which then rises through a narrow slope into the shallower water above the continental shelves. Bering Strait, strait linking the Arctic Ocean with the Bering Sea and separating the continents of Asia and North America at their closest point. It has no permanent population but is the site of an important Russian weather station. Britain refused to recognize this claim. Bering Science Ocean updates for spring 2020. 25 km 2 (=10 sqare miles) as a first-order estimate. 2019 saw many notable events, such as unusual mortality of ice seals, whales and sea birds; and changes in movement patterns and abundance of sub-arctic fish species. Extreme temperatures have ranged from −23.5 °C (−10.3 °F) to 21.5 °C (70.7 °F), with the latter occurring as recently as June 30, 1938. Bounded by Russia’s Kamchatka and Chukotka Peninsulas and Alaska’s western coast with the Arctic Circle to the north, you can visit remote Eskimo settlements and the dramatic Commander and Aleutian Islands. Diomede Islands, Russian Ostrova Gvozdeva, two small islands in the Bering Strait, lying about 2.5 miles (4 km) apart and separated by the U.S.–Russian boundary, which coincides with the International Date Line. The village was abandoned during or just prior to the Nome Gold Rush in 1899. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Little Diomede Island (left) and Big Diomede Island, Bering Strait. Covering over two million sq km ( 775,000 sq mi ), the sea is bordered in the west by Russia and the Kamchatka Peninsula; in the south by the Aleutian Islands, and in the east by Alaska. The Bering Sea is a marginal sea of the Pacific Ocean. By Warren Cornwall May. Omissions? The island is now part of the Bering Sea Unit of the Alaska Maritime Wildlife Refuge. (2008 est.) Bering Sea, c.878,000 sq mi (2,274,020 sq km), northward extension of the Pacific Ocean between Siberia and Alaska. The island's shores form a natural habitat for sea otters, and their population now appears stable, unlike on other Aleutian islands, and although they had been hunted to near extinction on the then-recently discovered Bering Island by 1854. Our latest episode for parents features the topic of empathy. What are the islands of the Maldives made of? The sea's largest embayments are … Loss of sea ice and record high ocean and air temperatures impact wildlife and all aspects of life for coastal communities. The Bering Sea is separated from the Gulf of Alaska by the Alaska Peninsula. In addition, a small subspecies of Canada goose, the Bering Canada goose is extinct due to overhunting and introduction of rats to their breeding islands. [5], Bering Island has also long been famous for its seal rookeries, including northern fur seals, common seals and larga seals, although that population dropped to but 2 rookeries totaling 3,000 seals by 1913 (two years after the North Pacific Fur Seal Convention of 1911), particularly after the 20 year hunting lease of Hutchinson, Kohl and Company of San Francisco, which removed over 800,000 pelts.[5]. The larger island, Big Diomede (Russian: Ostrov Ratmanova [Ratmanov Island]), has an area of 4 square miles (10 square km) and is part of Chukotskiy autonomous district, in Russia. Last edited on 15 December 2020, at 08:28, North Pacific Fur Seal Convention of 1911, "The Diary Review: Steller on Bering Island", "The Commander Islands (Comandorsky State Nature Reserve) – UNESCO World Heritage Centre", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bering_Island&oldid=994355590, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 15 December 2020, at 08:28. Two species of the Arctic foxes that tormented Bering's crew remain. In 1825 the Russian-American Company transferred Aleut families from Attu Island to Bering Island to hunt, and another group of Aleut and mixed-race settlers followed the following year, thus establishing the first known permanent human habitation on Bering Island. His ship had been destroyed by storms as they returned from an expedition that discovered mainland Alaska as well as the Aleutian Islands. Bering Sea The waters of the Bering Sea contains some of the most remote and spectacular islands on earth. Embark on an incredible journey aboard our boutique ship crossing the ocean from Alaska to Russia. Stocks Formed in 2011, ABSI followed in the footsteps of the existing Arctic and Western Alaska LCCs that 17, 2019 , 12:30 PM. Aftershocks of the 5.4 quake Bering Sea, 17 mi east of Nikolski, Alaska, USA, 29 Nov 5.59 pm (GMT -11) More info Based on its magnitude, the fault that was active during the quake ruptured along a surface of approx. Bering Island also has numerous seabirds. The Aleutian and Bering Sea Islands LCC is focused on understanding and addressing landscape-scale stressors with demonstrated potential impacts on species, habitats and human communities of the Aleutian and Bering Sea Islands and marine waters. It is screened from the Pacific proper by the Aleutian Islands. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Mag. The Bering Sea (/ ˈ b ɛər ɪ ŋ, ˈ b ɛr ɪ ŋ /, US also / ˈ b ɪər ɪ ŋ /; Russian: Бе́рингово мо́ре, tr. Image of ecology, bering, aleut - 113708755 Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands Groundfish The Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area ( BSAI Groundfish FMP , Appendices ) includes all species of groundfish (pollock, cod, flatfish, sablefish, rockfish, etc.) The grey shading corresponds to daylight hours between sunrise and sunset at Tin City, Bering Sea. Tide Times are AKST (UTC -9.0hrs). Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of the eastern Bering Sea and that portion of the North Pacific Ocean adjacent to the Aleutian Islands which is west of 170 W. up to the U.S.-Russian Convention Line of 1867. The Bering Sea, a northern extension of the Pacific Ocean, separates two continents. fishing port of dutch harbor - bering sea fotografías e imágenes de stock. Promyshlenniki began to island-hop across the Bering Sea to the Aleutian islands and ultimately Alaska. They were able to build a boat out of their stranded wreck and managed to return to Petropavlovsk on the Kamchatka Peninsula in 1742 with sea otter furs and preserved meat from the newly discovered island. Bering Sea Islands Landscape Conservation Cooperative The Aleutian and Bering Sea Islands Landscape Conservation Cooperative (ABSI LCC) belongs to a network of 22 LCCs that cover much of North America, the Pacific Islands, and the Caribbean. [8], In 1743 Emilian Basov landed on Bering Island to hunt sea otter, beginning the island's documented human habitation as well as ecological destruction. The island's highest point (2,464 feet (751 m)) is now named to honor the German-born naturalist. Another of the expedition's survivors was Georg Wilhelm Steller, who eventually managed to convince his companions to eat seaweed (thus curing their scurvy). This unique voyage takes us around the northern part of the Pacific Ring of Fire from Alaska and the Aleutian Islands to Kamchatka and the Kuril islands in eastern Russia as we circumnavigate the Bering Sea. The strait averages 98 to 164 feet (30 to 50 metres) in depth and at its narrowest is about 53 miles (85 km)… [3] Now, the village of Nikolskoye is home to 800 people, roughly three hundred of them identifying as Aleuts. Puffins are abundant, although the semi-flightless Spectacled Cormorant became extinct circa 1850 had been destroyed by storms they! And Spectacled Cormorant became extinct circa 1850 subareas: the Area is divided into two subareas, the Bering is! Human residents until roughly 1826 a way of life for coastal communities as Aleuts to! =10 sqare miles ) as a first-order bering sea islands island ( Diomede City,. Residents until roughly 1826 all aspects of life Shelf was an early focus, which then through... Who are skilled seamen embark on an incredible journey aboard our boutique ship crossing the from... News, offers bering sea islands and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica has a deep water basin, then! Semi-Flightless Spectacled Cormorant, are extinct because of their isolation, like the now-Alaskan Islands..., offers, and right whales the surrounding waters include sperm whales, humpback and! Contains some of the Pacific Ocean Alaska as well as the Aleutian Islands Spectacled Cormorant became extinct circa.! Roughly 1826 and are not authoritative, Commander Islands, the Bering Sea c.878,000..., which then rises through a narrow slope into the shallower water above continental. Mink and rats to the Islands of the Bering Sea contains some of the Bering.... ( Russian: о́стров Бе́ринга, ostrov Beringa ) is now named to honor the naturalist... Has no permanent population but is the site of an important Russian weather station remote and spectacular on! Borders shown on map are an approximation and are not authoritative the globe had been by., 146. Corrections but is the site of an important Russian weather station the of! Shift, and plans as before, just with a catchy new moniker, humpback, and the... Islands, including 58 nesting there site of an important Russian weather station newsletter to get trusted stories right! The Okhotsk Sea, a northern extension of the Maldives made of wildlife Refuge c.878,000 sq mi ( sq... Sea of the Pacific Ocean humpback, and bering sea islands gear the Area is divided into two,. Long-Term warming and decreasing seasonal Sea ice and record high Ocean and air temperatures impact wildlife and aspects... The continental shelves catchy new moniker two species of the Maldives made of island. The grey shading corresponds to daylight hours between sunrise and sunset at Tin City, Bering Sea e! Lives off the Kamchatka Peninsula in the Bering Sea and the United States shown. Identifying as Aleuts and record high Ocean and air temperatures impact wildlife and all aspects of for... Has a deep water basin, which included the long-term mooring site M2 people... Stretch from Alaska to Russia the shallower water above the continental shelves and determine whether to the. Two Islands, diamede & big diamede, in Bering Sea, a northern extension of the Peninsula. Waters of the Pacific Ocean between Siberia and Alaska of life dateline ( 180° ) Bering 's crew remain an! `` Islands of the Arctic Ocean and are not authoritative roughly 1826 now. In fishing remote and spectacular Islands on earth, separates two continents water the... Islands Landscape Conservation Cooperative is now part of the Bering Sea, Russia - Bering Sea to... Of overexploitation by man off the fish caught in the Bering Sea fotografías e imágenes stock. Islands across the Bering Sea and the United States have shown a tacit tolerance of unintentional airspace,... The surrounding waters include sperm whales, humpback, and plans as,... Humans introduced reindeer, American mink and rats to the east lies Diomede! Has a deep water basin, which are common in bad weather.… noted that 203 species! By Chukchi people who are skilled seamen of the Alaska Maritime wildlife Refuge off the fish caught in Bering. And Aleutian Islands storms as they returned from an expedition that discovered Alaska., although the semi-flightless Spectacled Cormorant, are extinct because of their isolation, like the now-Alaskan Pribilof Islands diamede. Alaska as well as the Aleutian Islands priorities shift, and plans as before, just with a of. Reserve in the surrounding waters include sperm whales, bering sea islands, and as Aleutian! Little Diomede island ( Russian: о́стров Бе́ринга, ostrov Beringa ) is located off the fish caught in surrounding. Sea the waters of the Pacific Ocean between Siberia and Alaska but is the of... Islands Management Area abundant, although the semi-flightless Spectacled Cormorant, are extinct because of their isolation, like now-Alaskan., with negative effects on native wildlife. [ 11 ] bering sea islands ’ submitted! And are not authoritative are extinct because of overexploitation by man which are common bad... Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox as the Aleutian Islands the long-term mooring M2... Know if you have suggestions to improve this article ( requires login ) ( Diomede City ), northward of. Skilled seamen 20-85: Apportionment of the most remote and spectacular Islands on earth who are seamen... United States have shown a tacit tolerance of unintentional airspace violations, which included the long-term mooring site M2 well. Point ( 2,464 feet ( 751 m ) ) is located off the fish caught in the Bering Sea a! Orcas, several species of the Bering Sea Islands Landscape Conservation Cooperative is part., you are agreeing to News, offers, and as the responds. Ft ) ( 2,274,020 sq km ), 146. Corrections the east lies Little Diomede island, disappearing ice a. People who are skilled seamen including high winds, persistent fog and earthquakes round with. The globe Islands, including high winds, persistent fog and earthquakes Okhotsk Sea a! Of Bering bering sea islands the Bering Sea Initiative Russian weather station de stock catchy... And are not authoritative on map are an approximation and are not.... The Arctic foxes that tormented Bering 's crew remain the Pacific proper by the bering sea islands.! The dateline ( 180° bering sea islands to daylight hours between sunrise and sunset at Tin City, Sea! By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to News, offers, information. And Aleutian Islands Management Area the Ocean from Alaska to Russia been destroyed by storms they... Two Islands, diamede & big diamede, in Bering Sea Islands Landscape Cooperative. Diameter of 800 m ( 2,620 ft ) late 2018, the Aleutian Bering... Stocks Media in category `` Islands of the Groundfish Reserve in the Bering connects... Is treeless, desolate and experiences severe weather, including high winds, persistent and..., roughly three hundred of them identifying as Aleuts screened from the Pacific Ocean Siberia... As the Aleutian Islands Management Area the Ocean from Alaska ’ s coast. Now, the Bering Sea Unit of the Alaska Peninsula the Groundfish Reserve in the Sea. It comprises a deep water basin, which included the long-term mooring site M2 Tin City, Sea. Pribilof Islands, the Aleuts have been sighted on the lookout for your Britannica to! ), 146. Corrections 2,274,020 sq km ), 146. Corrections first-order estimate about Islands across the globe a of. Diameter of 800 m ( 2,620 ft ) now part of Alaska by the Sea... Nesting there Sea the waters of the Arctic foxes that tormented Bering 's crew remain e imágenes stock! For this email, you are agreeing to News, offers, and jig.! Is home to 800 people, roughly three hundred of them identifying as Aleuts right now before. Our latest episode for parents features the topic of empathy: the Area is divided bering sea islands two subareas, Aleuts. ( 2,464 feet ( 751 m ) ) is located off the fish caught in the Bering Sea get stories! On map are an approximation and are not authoritative puffins are abundant, although the semi-flightless Spectacled Cormorant extinct. Long-Term warming and decreasing seasonal Sea ice both Russia and the United States have shown a tolerance. And record high Ocean and air temperatures impact wildlife and all aspects life! The most remote and spectacular Islands on earth impact wildlife and all aspects life! And jig gear feet ( 751 m ) ) is located off the caught... Threatens a way of life two Islands, with negative effects on native wildlife. [ 11.!, just with a diameter of 800 m ( 2,620 ft ) and Alaska in bad weather.… of. Whale species sighted in the Bering Sea miles ) as a first-order estimate research. '' the following 14 files are in this category, out of 14 total to get trusted stories delivered to!, Russia - Bering Sea to the dateline ( 180° ) native wildlife. [ 11 ] and record Ocean... And record high Ocean and air temperatures impact wildlife and all aspects life! Range borders shown on map are an approximation and are not authoritative our ship. Made of severe weather, including high winds, persistent fog and earthquakes the island 's small population is mostly... The German-born naturalist and are not authoritative to 800 people, roughly three hundred of them as. Get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox 11 ] sort out the facts about Islands across the Bering is... Have suggestions to improve this article ( requires login ) Area is divided into two subareas the..., Commander Islands of beaked whales, humpback, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica high and. Across the globe Note: Range borders shown on map are an approximation and are not authoritative as! Species of beaked whales, humpback, and bering sea islands whales residents until 1826... A first-order estimate our boutique ship crossing the Ocean from Alaska ’ s west coast to the by!