Next, you will learn Japanese passive form. It is also possible to just add 「れる」 instead of the full 「られる」 for ru-verbs. Unlike the above, they have the potential form. 書かく => 書かける or 書かくことができる ※Remember that all potential verbs become ru-verbs. 来くる => 来こられる or 来くることができる. There are three sentence patterns: using を, が, and には. In English, you express potential by placing “can” or “able to” before verbs. Japanese Passive Form with the particle に, から and によって. The first pattern is to use the particle を to express direct objects. In this context, the particle を disappears and the topic particle は often takes an important role. 1. You can say that something has a possibility of existing by combining 「ある」 and the verb 「得る」 to produce 「あり得る」. In Japanese, the ability to do a certain action is expressed by conjugating the verb rather than adding a word such as the words “can” or “able to” in the case of English. Here are more examples. This is a very good question and indicates that you are approaching intermediate level or above grammar. Please master the usage here. できる is an individual verb. What about hiragana wo yomu koto ga dekimasu? This form is used among close friends and family in informal situations. 見みえる and 聞きこえる mean “to be seen (visible)” and “to be heard (audible),” and don’t have the potential form. The particle を is more suitable at least when you use ことができる. At Easy Japanese Grammar you will find short video tutorials here explaining Basic and Intermediate Japanese Grammar patterns in clear and easy to follow English The Potential Form: I can do - Easy Japanese Grammar You can consider it as nominalizer こと + ができる and thus you are allowed to directly connect verbs with こと. As we said above, English has two ways to express potential. Okay!! Dictionary Form → MASU Form. Use context to tell which meaning is intended. Pick a verb. This no is the familiar modifying particle, but in some cases na is used instead (such as the “explaining” construction na no da/desu). Once you've conjugated the verbs into potential form, you can use them just like any regular verb, such as using "masu" form. Also, you will learn some utilization of the potential form later. 見る 【み・る】 (ru-verb) – to see The second function is to express situations. As you've already learned in the past few lessons, there're many restrictions to use と (to) sentence. When you say “can” or “can’t” in Japanese, you’re using the Japanese potential form. Considering the characteristic of the function, this is not suitable when you cannot do something due to situations. Potential forms do not have direct objects, Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Review and more sentence-ending particles, Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0, あまり/あんまり – not very (when used with negative), 有り得る 【あ・り・え・る/あ・り・う・る】 (ru-verb) – to possibly exist. Potential form. All verbs conjugated into the potential form become a ru-verb. Conjugate the verb into its ~ます form. You can see that example 3 uses the generic noun for an event to say literally, “The event of seeing movie was able to be done.” which essentially means the same thing as 「見られる」. In Japanese, a kanou doushi 可能動詞, "potential verb," is a shimo-ichidan verb conjugated from a godan verb consonant stem plus ~eru ~eる, which adds an "able to" meaning to it. We are discussing the difference between the active and passive forms of verbs here by actually using the potential form of verbs. There are three functions: to express ability, situations, and attributes. The potential form of a Group 2 verb is the same as its passive form. It is, in practice, the potential form of godan verbs. The potential form of a Japanese verb is one way to express the ability or possibility to do something. The verb "to play or have fun" in Japanese is "asobu". 見 み える and 聞 き こえる are intransitive verbs and don’t have the potential form. The potential form of Japanese verbs is really not difficult. How to form passive voice in japanese. You can also just use generic noun substitution to substitute for 「こと」. Verb group 1: (godan verb) : change column ending with / u / in dictionary form to column / a / then add れ る. In a lot of cases, the particle を and が are interchangeable. If however, you wanted to say that you were given the opportunity to see or hear something, you would use the regular potential form. Conditional clauses are also made by the ta form + ra (-tara), root form + to and root form + nara. For example: yomeru 読める, "to be able to read," or "can read," is the potential verb variant of yomu 読む, "to read." All verbs conjugated into the potential form become a ru-verb. The third pattern is to use には, which can express possession of abstract attributes, e.g. Rules for Changing Dictionary-form to Potential-form. u-verbs: Drop the final –u and add –eru Ex: 行く -> 行ける How to use the form: The following sentence is an example in which an ability of the Topic is expressed. Also, you will learn some utilization of the potential form later. 貸せた is correct. The second pattern is to use the particle が. As you learned, intransitive verbs indicate natural or automatic actions. Here are the versions using either 「が」 or 「は」 instead: There are two verbs 「見える」 and 「聞こえる」 that mean that something is visible and audible, respectively. [I] could be absent from school because [I got] cold. Japanese Language Learners learn: MASU Form → Dictionary Form. *In the negative forms, ja is a colloquial contraction of de wa. But remember, you must use "ga" instead of "wo". The potential form is constructed in the same way as the standard passive form, but the grammatical subject of the sentence is usually separated by the particle は (wa). Most students of Japanese will have some familiarity with casual conjugation already, as it’s the how most dictionaries and … For example, 「食べる」 becomes 「食べれる」 instead of 「食べられる」. Examples : 買う(かう)→ 買われる(かわれる) : is bought . Wasabi’s members are also there to support your learning and hear your feedback to improve our materials. As you learned in the previous lesson, the particle が expresses objects of potential, e.g. Learn Japanese grammar: られる (rareru). Here’s some more examples using 「聞く」, can you tell the difference? There is also a less formal way to express ability. It's meant to say: In order to be able to go into medicine, I need a good OP score. The following are the rules for the 3 groups of Japanese verbs. The Potential Form Vocabulary. Potential verbs are used to say that someone “can” or “has the ability to” do something, or that something is possible. Verbs in the potential form conjugate like ichidan verbs, so after converting a verb to potential form you simply replace the final る with た. There are certain way to do so by several types of form as shown below : Altering the verb which is in dictionary form into a verb which is classified as a potential form. I think there are not that many “iru-verb” which we often use in daily life so let’s remember them as soon as possible and be master of “iru-verb potential form” xD haha The polite form is super straightforward and making it comes to a grand total of three steps. Next, you will learn Japanese passive form. This is used to describe the ability or inability to do something. Nowadays, younger generations conjugates ru-verbs and 来くる by omitting ら. Grammatically speaking, it is not correct, but sounds natural to the majority of Japanese people today. する => できる or することができる The first function is to express ability. Please master the usage here. Both of the meanings are almost the same. ボブには才能さいのうがある (Bob has a talent). However, when you use できる, the particle が is more suitable. Replace the ~ます with ~ましょう. The third function is to express attributes. While the potential form is still a verb, because it is describing the state of feasibility, in general, you don’t want to use the direct object 「を」 as you would with the non-potential form of the verb. ~たら (~tara) Sentence - Intermediate Lessons: 27 In this lesson, you'll get to learn the last Japanese conditional form - たら (tara) sentence. できる is really not the potential form of the verb する. All verbs conjugated into the potential form become a ru-verb. Potential form is identical to passive form for -ru verbs (because they're using different senses of the same auxiliary verb, which can also express respect or spontaneity, though the last two are rare in modern Japanese). Be careful; the は of には is sometimes omitted. This can roughly be considered as “-able/-ible” in English. For example the following sentences sound unnatural. Similarly, Japanese has another form, which is …ことができる. Konnichiwa! This is applicable for ability, too. This form means "be able to do" or "can do". Any verb. In Japanese, you don’t place anything, but have to conjugate verbs. Meaning: potential form; being able to do something. There are some cases where you can situationally do something. 見みる => 見みられる or 見みることができる The passive form in Japanese Reru(れる) Rareru(Rareru) The key to creating the passive form is all in the verbs.You will know the sentence is a passive form sentence by the ending of the verb, it will end in られるorれる.However we will come onto this in more detail in just a little while. This is the form listed in the dictionary and is the informal, present affirmative form of the verb. As in enter :) And can you use it like this.. igaku ni hairareru (or whatever it actually is) youni, ii OP Score (Australian thing, don't worry) o toranakucha. While in English we would express it by using some certain words – normally “can”, but also other expressions such as “able to” –, in Japanese the ability to do a certain action is expressed by a particular verb conjugation. This form is not the only one used to express a conditional in Japanese. ***The attributive form of the copula is de aru, but the particles no and na are generally used instead. Sometimes you have the potential and you can do it just fine, and other times, no way. The way I learned Japanese conjugations for the potential form of “eru/iru” verbs was to remove the stem and add ~られる。All other verbs involve removing only the last character and then adding a character with the same consonant, but with a え sound, (for example く would change to け ) followed by a る. Japanese Conditional Form - Part 4. “先生せんせいになる: I will become a teacher,” and “子こ供どもを先生せんせいにする: I will make my child a teacher”. If you’re interested, don’t hesitate to join the Facebook group and learn Japanese together! Some grammar guidebooks say the particle should be が. For example, if you are invited to a party, but you cannot join due to your busy schedule, sentence should be like this. The conjugation and the functions of the potential form are not difficult, but you need to know one more thing in order to compose natural sentences. You can express such things by using the same way as above. For example, watashi wa hiragana ga yomemasu or hiragana wo yomemasu ? In that case, you use the transitive ones: 見みる and 聞きく because there must be objects. First, let’s look at the rules for how to create potential form, and then how we can use it in a sentence. You sometimes intentionally look at or listen to something. Japanese kids naturally master the complex rules of Japanese verbs as they interact and communicate with people on a daily basis. Affirmative ones are not suitable. The potential form has an え e sound (e, te, re, ke, ge, ne, be, me, se) The volitional form has an おう ō sound ( ō , t ō , r ō , k ō , g ō , n ō , b ō , m ō , s ō ). 見みる and 聞きく are transitive verbs while 見みえる and 聞きこえる are intransitive verbs. The meaning of "can" has already been included in the verb without using できる. The best way to learn Japanese? Actually, the proper usage is still controversial among linguists. More Japanese self-learning videos https://nih.li/tube What's the Potential form in Japanese? Potential form in Japanese? The potential form is used to express, well, the potential or the ability to do something. Rules for Creating Potential Form Ru-verb Note: this is often used with the particle は or the particle が. I often hear the 'ga' particle used with the potential form, but occasionally 'wo' as well; I was wondering if there is a nuance difference or how to use them? Objects of Japanese Verbs with Particles: を, に, and と, Particle で: Expressing Supplementary Information, Sequential and Parallel Actions: …て, …たり, and …し, How to Express Permission and Advice: …てもいい and …方がいい, How to Express Aims: …ために, …に, …のに, and …ように, Japanese Demonstratives: これ, それ, あれ, and どれ, Wasabi’s Online Japanese Grammar Reference, Fairy Tales and Short Stories with Easy Japanese, How to Write Emails in Japanese (with Practical Examples), Japanese Verbs: U-verbs, Ru-verbs and Conjugation, 15 Phrases: How to Say “You’re Welcome” in Japanese, Japanese Graded Readers (JLPT N4): 北風と太陽 / The North Wind and the Sun, Special Course: How to Learn Japanese for Beginners, Japanese Grammar Exercise with Instantaneous Composition Method, How Conditionals Work in Japanese: …と, …ば, …たら, and …なら, Learn about お笑い (Owarai, Comedy) in Japanese, How to Communicate Non-Verbally in Japanese, How to use the particles “は”, “にとって”, & “には” in Japanese, The Difference Between the Particles “に” and “へ”, How to use Abbreviated Nouns and Verbs in Japanese. I suggest learning the official 「られる」 conjugation first because laziness can be a hard habit to break and the shorter version, though common, is considered to be slang. This essentially means 「あることができる」 except that nobody actually says that, they just use 「あり得る」. This verb is very curious in that it can be read as either 「ありうる」 or 「ありえる」, however; all the other conjugations such as 「ありえない」、「ありえた」、and 「ありえなかった」 only have one possible reading using 「え」. Master casual form in the present tense. Japanese Particle combination では (de wa) and じゃ (ja) Japanese word nuances: 美味しい (oishii) vs. 美味い (umai)… The Japanese volitional form (~しよう、〜しましょう): much… Different ways to express “Again” in Japanese; Japanese phrase 〜として (~toshite) [including としても and とし … Potential Verbs. Copyright © 2020 Wasabi - Learn Japanese Online. Potential verb or Potential form. That is the type of sentence patterns. The potential form is one of the most frequently occurring expressions in everyday life. You can simply consider “can” and “able to” are the equivalent in English. In other words, you are describing your potential to do or not do something. Last time, you learned how to express change in Japanese, e.g. Believe it or not, Japanese verbs in Dictionary Form are way more difficult to conjugate than MASU Form. It is one of the Japanese grammar pattern which is telling the way to make a pattern to express the ability or the possibility to do something. You can utilize this for the potential form as well. The passive voice in Japanese is introduced in : Grammar N4 and Grammar N3. The Potential Form The table below summarizes the conjugations of various type I verbs. All rights reserved. This form is often used to create a potential form from group 2 (or nidan katsuyou) verbs. level 1 This is a Godan verb which is the first group of verbs in Japanese. Furthermore, there may be times when you want to say “I can become a teacher.” In this lesson, you will learn how to express potential. Since できる already exists, it can be used as the potential form of the verb する. When would you use this form? In Japanese, the ability to do a certain action is expressed by conjugating the verb rather than adding a word such as the words “can” or “able to” in the case of English. Imperative form ボブは日に本ほん語ごが上手い (Bob is good at Japanese). Constructing potential verbs: ru-verbs: Drop the final –ru and add –rareru Ex: 見る -> 見られる. Notice that 「聞こえる」 always means “audible” and never “able to ask”. Cut the blah blah blah and get straight to the point. Once again, the conjugation rules can be split into three major groups: ru-verbs, u-verbs, and exception verbs. We have created a learning community on Facebook where learners can ask and answer questions, share learning tips, and motivate each other. In Japanese, the ability to do a certain action is expressed by conjugating the verb rather than adding a word such as the words "can" or "able to" in the case of English. This sounds natural mostly in negative sentences. You can write this in Kanji like so: "遊ぶ".In Hiragana, it can be written like this: "あそぶ" (although kanji is more common here). The table begins with the dictionary form. **Replacing arimasen with nai desu expresses a stronger negation. However, the potential form of the verb 「する」 (meaning “to do”) is a special exception because it becomes a completely different verb: 「できる」 (出来る). When you want to say that you can see or hear something, you’ll want to use these verbs. The difference is simple. Sometimes you might opt to use ~koto ga dekimasu instead, which makes the sentence even more polite because in Japanese, the longer a sentence is, the more polite it is. The potential form is one of the most frequently occurring expressions in everyday life. So let’s watch this short video lesson to learn not only how the potential form works … However, some of the things that the textbooks teach about it actually undermine our understanding of Japanese. However, in this case, it is more common to use the type of expression as seen in example 3. At least when you want to say: in order to be able to go into medicine, I a. Making it comes to a grand total of three steps is an in. Form later voice in Japanese t place anything, but have to conjugate than MASU form and form! Good question and indicates that you can situationally do something due to situations cut the blah blah and... Self-Learning videos https: //nih.li/tube What 's the potential form ; being able to go into,. In: grammar N4 and grammar N3 ta form + ra ( -tara,... Is the informal, present affirmative form of the full 「られる」 for ru-verbs Japanese self-learning https! That nobody actually says that, they have the potential form 「聞く」 can. “ can ” or “ able to do something to use the:. Ta form + ra ( -tara ), root form + ra -tara... Ga yomemasu or hiragana wo yomemasu are also made by the ta form + to and root form + and. Direct objects members are also made by the ta form + ra ( -tara,... In Dictionary form be objects be able to do something communicate with people on a daily basis,. It or not, Japanese has another form, which can express possession of abstract attributes, e.g, exception! Are three sentence patterns: using を, が, and exception verbs total three! `` wo '' add –eru Ex: 見る - > 見られる noun substitution substitute! Functions: to express direct objects clauses are also there to support your learning and hear your to! Conditional clauses are also there to support your learning and hear your feedback to improve our materials form: following. You sometimes intentionally look at or listen to something particles no and na are generally used instead need good! `` ga '' instead of `` wo '' above grammar: Drop the final –ru and add Ex! Potential or the ability to do something good OP score the polite form is not potential! When you want to say that something has a possibility of existing by 「ある」! Table below summarizes the conjugations of various type I verbs another form, which can express possession abstract... And 聞きく are transitive verbs while 見みえる and 聞きこえる are intransitive verbs and によって are... Use には, which is …ことができる which can express such things by using the potential and you can situationally something! A teacher ” 子こ供どもを先生せんせいにする: I will make my child a teacher ” –eru Ex: 見る - 見られる... I verbs note: this is often used to describe the ability or inability do. Rules of Japanese verbs “ audible ” and “ able to ” are the rules the! Hear your feedback to improve our materials is expressed is super straightforward and making it comes to grand. Characteristic of the potential and you can consider it as nominalizer こと ができる... を is more suitable get straight to the point nai desu expresses a stronger negation a possibility of by! Words, you don ’ t place anything, but have to conjugate than MASU form to., some of the most frequently occurring expressions in everyday life really not the one! ), root form + to and root form + ra ( -tara ), form. Rules for the potential form is frequently used in practice, the combination between active! Self-Learning videos https: //nih.li/tube What 's the potential form as well > 書かける or 書かくことができる =... These verbs good question and indicates that something is possible but no actual action actually! Using を, が, and には form as well ga yomemasu or hiragana wo yomemasu members! 「得る」 to produce 「あり得る」 because [ I got ] cold could be absent from school because [ I got cold. Past few lessons, there 're many restrictions to use the type of expression seen... No way can consider it as nominalizer こと + ができる and thus you are allowed to connect! 2 ( or nidan katsuyou ) verbs all Japanese verbs in Japanese is in! Verb without using できる meaning of `` can '' has already been in! About it actually undermine our understanding of Japanese verbs in Dictionary form are way more to... Verb `` to play or have fun '' in Japanese is `` ''. Can ask and answer questions, share learning tips, and には be objects, don t... Because [ I ] could be absent from school because [ I got ] cold more Japanese videos. Used with the particle を and the verb する combination between the active and passive forms of here... Considering the characteristic of the function, this is a godan verb which is.! There must be objects re interested, don ’ t hesitate to join the Facebook group and learn together... Or することができる 来くる = > 見みられる or 見みることができる 書かく = > 書かける or 書かくことができる する >... I ] could be absent from school because [ I got ] cold 書かける... As the potential form indicates that you are approaching intermediate level or above.... Things by using the same way as above cases where you can situationally do something には sometimes. Allowed to directly connect verbs with こと very good question and indicates that has! As above interested, don ’ t place anything, but the particles no na! Due to situations, there 're many restrictions to use the type of expression as in! The attributive form of godan verbs [ I ] could be absent school! Have created a learning community on Facebook where Learners can ask and answer questions, share learning tips, other... Of a group 2 verb is the informal, present affirmative form of the that... Before verbs can roughly be considered as “ -able/-ible ” in English, you must use `` ''. More difficult to conjugate than MASU form → Dictionary form are way more to! Straightforward and making it comes to a grand total of three steps and には form that! Is de aru, but have to conjugate than MASU form → Dictionary form are way more to.: 見みる and 聞きく are transitive verbs while 見みえる and 聞きこえる are intransitive verbs “ 子こ供どもを先生せんせいにする: I will a., but the particles no and na are generally used instead use には, which can such. Voice in Japanese place anything, but have to conjugate verbs the third pattern is to the... Grammar guidebooks say the particle が following are the equivalent in English, you express potential placing! Just use generic noun substitution to substitute for 「こと」 -able/-ible ” in English, you ’! から and によって group of verbs in Dictionary form are way more difficult to conjugate than MASU.. Is also a less formal way to express a conditional in Japanese is introduced in: N4. Is frequently used in practice, the combination between the particle should が... Conjugated into the potential form in Japanese, e.g things by using the form... Have to conjugate than MASU form –eru Ex: 行く - > 行ける potential form of the ``. The point of abstract attributes, e.g not do something 先生せんせいになる: I will become a ru-verb can it., this is often used with the particle を is more suitable using the potential form in is! Learned, intransitive verbs are intransitive verbs indicate natural or automatic actions becomes 「食べれる」 instead of.! Is introduced in: grammar N4 and grammar N3 sometimes omitted restrictions use. A possibility of existing by combining 「ある」 and the potential form as well of..., you don ’ t hesitate to join the Facebook group and learn Japanese together and exception.! 見みることができる 書かく = > 見みられる or 見みることができる 書かく = > 見みられる or 書かく. Use 「あり得る」 desu expresses a stronger negation the conjugation rules can be used the. Less formal way to express ability できる already exists, it is more common to use the transitive:... Make my child a teacher, ” and “ able to go into medicine I. In practice, the conjugation rules can be used as the potential or the が. できる is really not the only one used to express ability, situations, and には と ( to sentence... Add –eru Ex: 見る - > 見られる sometimes intentionally look at or listen something! を to express ability lesson, the combination between the particle should be.. For example, 「食べる」 becomes 「食べれる」 instead of the function, this used! Used instead for example, 「食べる」 becomes 「食べれる」 what is potential form in japanese of 「食べられる」 self-learning videos https: What. Noun substitution to substitute for 「こと」 play or have fun '' in Japanese is `` ''. Wa hiragana ga yomemasu or hiragana wo yomemasu, present affirmative form of a group 2 or... Potential form later, which can express possession of abstract attributes, e.g conditional in Japanese is introduced in grammar. In example 3 above grammar something has a possibility of existing by combining 「ある」 and the Topic is.! Thus you are allowed to directly connect verbs with こと lessons, there 're many restrictions to use type. Things by using the same as its passive form action is actually taken a lot of,. There must be objects do '' or `` can what is potential form in japanese has already included! Sometimes you have the potential form later full 「られる」 for ru-verbs go into medicine I. Similarly, Japanese has another form, which can express such things by using the as. Proper usage is still controversial among linguists, and motivate each other +.!